Important Concepts for Inclusion and Equity in Music Education
Karen Salvador, Ph.D., President, Michigan MEA
Teaching Tolerance – www.tolerance.org
This website (and free magazine) has resources, materials and information for creating inclusive learning environments and teaching students about difference, focusing on Ability, Bullying and Bias, Class, Gender and Sexual Identity, Immigration, Race and Ethnicity, Religion and Rights and Activism. Although the materials are not music-specific, the information is excellent, and some activities and ideas fit well with/in music teaching and learning, particularly the social justice standards https://www.tolerance.org/frameworks/social-justice-standards and critical practices frameworks https://www.tolerance.org/frameworks/critical-practices.
Race and Ethnicity
Lind V. R., McKoy C. (2016). Culturally Responsive Teaching in Music Education: From Understanding to Application. London, England: Routledge.
Delpit, L. (2006). Other people’s children: Cultural conflict in the classroom. The New Press.
Coates, T. N. (2015). Between the World and Me. Text publishing.
Turino, T. (2008). Music as Social Life: The Politics of Participation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
SES and Location
Fitzpatrick-Harnish, K. (2015). Urban Music Education: A Practical Guide for Teachers. Oxford University Press.
Kozol, Jonathan. (2012) Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s schools. Broadway Books.
Isbell, D. (2005). Music Education in Rural Areas: A Few Keys to Success. Music Educators Journal, 92(2), 30-34.
www.wrightslaw.org offers parents, educators, advocates, and attorneys accurate, reliable information about special education law, education law, and advocacy for children with disabilities. They also offer a free, weekly newsletter: Special Ed Advocate.
Ademek, M. S. & Darrow, A.A. (2010). Music in Special Education. (2nd Edition). American Music Therapy Association.
Hammel, A. M. & Hourigan, R. M. (2011). Teaching Music to Students with Special Needs: A Label-Free Approach. (2nd Edition). Oxford University Press.
Hammel, A. M. (2017). Teaching Music to Students With Special Needs: A Practical Resource. Oxford University Press.
Gender and Sexuality
Bryan, J. (2017). “Embracing Gender and Sexuality Diversity.” Independent School. Downloaded from: https://www.nais.org/magazine/independent-school/winter-2017/embracing-gender-and-sexuality-diversity/. This article presents a good overview of gender and sexuality in school, and gives ideas for examining policies and practices such as how gender inclusive practices align with existing school missions.
Gender Spectrum https://www.genderspectrum.org has resources, information, trainings, and opportunities to interact with others who are learning about gender, including: https://www.genderspectrum.org/CommonQuestions/ which is a great set of FAQs about teaching children about gender and https://genderspectrum.org/lounge/ a space with facilitated online activities and groups.
Palkki, J. (2015). “Choral Music’s Gender Trouble: Males, Adolescence and Masculinity.” Choral Journal. 56(4), 24-35.
O’Toole, P. (1998). “A Missing Chapter From Choral Methods Books: How Choirs Neglect Girls.” Choral Journal, 39(5), 9-32.
Nichols, J. (2013). “Rie’s story, Ryan’s Journey: Music in the Life of a Transgender Student.” Journal of Research in Music Education, 61(3), 262–279. doi:10.1177/0022429413498259
American Immigration Council. (2017). Fact Sheet: Immigrants in Wisconsin. Downloaded from: https://www.americanimmigrationcouncil.org/research/immigrants-in-wisconsin
Elpus, K., & Abril, C. R. (2011). “High School Music Ensemble Students in the United States: A Demographic Profile.” Journal of Research in Music Education, 59(2), 128-145.
Fortuny, K., Hernandez, D. J., & Chaudry, A. (2010). “Young Children of Immigrants: The Leading Edge of America’s Future. Brief No. 3.” Urban Institute (NJ1). Downloaded from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED511771.pdf
Freudenthaler, H. H., Spinath, B. and Neubauer, A. C. (2008), Predicting School Achievement in Boys and Girls.” European Journal of Personality, 22: 231–245. doi:10.1002/per.678
Good, J. J., & Sanchez, D. T. (2010). “Doing Gender for Different Reasons: Why Gender Conformity Positively and Negatively Predicts Self-Esteem.” Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(2), 203-214.
Griffiths, S., Murray, S. B., & Touyz, S. (2015). “Extending the Masculinity Hypothesis: An Investigation of Gender Role Conformity, Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in Young Heterosexual Men.” Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 16(1), 108.
Hoffman, E. C., III (2011). “The Status of Students With Special Needs in the Instrumental Musical Ensemble and the Effect of Selected Educator and Institutional Variables on Rates of Inclusion” (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Nebraska–Lincoln.
Kena, G., Hussar W., McFarland J., de Brey C., Musu-Gillette, L., Wang, X., Zhang, J., Rathbun, A., Wilkinson- Flicker, S., Diliberti M., Barmer, A., Bullock Mann, F., and Dunlop Velez, E. (2016). The Condition of Education 2016 (NCES 2016-144). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, D.C. Downloaded from https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cge.asp (race/ethnicity)
https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cgg.asp (Special Education)
Mustanski, B., & Liu, R. T. (2013). “A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Suicide Attempts Among Lesbian, Gay, Gisexual and Transgender Youth.” Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(3), 437-448.
Myhill, D., & Jones, S. (2006). “‘She Doesn’t Shout at No Girls’: Pupils’ Perceptions of Gender Equity in the Classroom.” Cambridge Journal of Education, 36(1), 99-113.
National Association for Music Education. (2017a). Equity and Access in Music Education. Downloaded from: https://nafme.org/about/position-statements/equity-access/.
National Association for Music Education. (2017b). Inclusiveness and Diversity in Music Education. Downloaded from: https://nafme.org/about/position-statements/inclusivity-diversity/.
National Association for Music Education. (2017c). On Affirming All Students. Downloaded from: https://nafme.org/on-affirming-all-students/.
Orfield, G., Kuscera, J., & Siegel-Hawley, G. (2012). “E Pluribus… Separation: Deepening Double Segregation for More Students.” Los Angeles: Civil Rights Project UCLA. Downloaded from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/8g58m2v9.
Sadker, M., & Sadker, D. (2010). “Failing at Fairness: How America’s Schools Cheat Girls.” Simon and Schuster.
Stewart, D. L. (2017). “Language of Appeasement.” Inside Higher Ed. Downloaded from: https://www.insidehighered.com/views/2017/03/30/colleges-need-language-shift-not-one-you-think-essay.
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (n.d.). “Advancing Rural Wisconsin to Support Our Schools and Communities.” Downloaded from: https://dpi.wi.gov/rural.
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (2016). “Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance.” Downloaded from: https://dpi.wi.gov/sites/default/files/imce/eis/pdf/schools_at_a_glance.pdf.
Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction (2014). IDEA Count 2014-15 “Federal Special Education Student Reporting by Age Groups/Primary Disability Wisconsin” – October 1, 2014. Downloaded from: https://dpi.wi.gov/sped/data/child-count/10-01-14.